

Krï¿½mli Mihï¿½ly:
Fiume 1848ban
Fiume (horvï¿½t nevï¿½n Rijeka, a nï¿½v mindkï¿½t nyelven folyï¿½t jelent) a 18. szï¿½zad kï¿½zepï¿½ig egyike a kisebb adriai kikï¿½tï¿½vï¿½rosoknak. Mai nevï¿½n IV. Bï¿½la egyik oklevele emlï¿½ti elï¿½szï¿½r 1260ban, mint Magyarorszï¿½g hatï¿½rï¿½n lï¿½vï¿½, de a Nï¿½met birodalomhoz tartozï¿½ vï¿½rost. 1466tï¿½l Fiume a Habsburgok csalï¿½di birtokakï¿½nt szï¿½leskï¿½rï¿½ ï¿½nkormï¿½nyzatisï¿½ggal rendelkezett, a vï¿½rost a csï¿½szï¿½r ï¿½ltal kinevezett kapitï¿½nyok kormï¿½nyoztï¿½k. 1515ben I. Miksa a vï¿½rosnak a "leghï¿½vebb" (fidelissima) cï¿½met adomï¿½nyozta. I. Ferdinï¿½nd 1530ban megerï¿½sï¿½tette a vï¿½ros ï¿½nï¿½llï¿½sï¿½gï¿½t ï¿½s statï¿½tumait. I. Lipï¿½t 1659ben cï¿½mert adomï¿½nyozott a vï¿½rosnak, ï¿½s sajï¿½t zï¿½szlï¿½ hasznï¿½latï¿½t engedï¿½lyezte. A cï¿½mer alatt a vï¿½ros jelszava ï¿½llt: "Indeficienter" (lankadatlanul).[1]
A Habsburg uralkodï¿½k kï¿½zï¿½l elsï¿½kï¿½nt III. Kï¿½roly fordï¿½tott kï¿½lï¿½nï¿½s figyelmet a tengeri kereskedelemre ï¿½s a kikï¿½tï¿½kre. 1717. jï¿½nius 2ï¿½n kibocsï¿½tott pï¿½tensï¿½vel biztosï¿½totta az Adriï¿½n a hajï¿½zï¿½s szabadsï¿½gï¿½t. E rendeletï¿½t az adriai hajï¿½zï¿½st kï¿½zben tartï¿½ Velence is kï¿½nytelen volt eltï¿½rni. Politikï¿½ja folytatï¿½sakï¿½nt Triesztet ï¿½s Fiumï¿½t, a birodalom kï¿½t legnagyobb kikï¿½tï¿½vï¿½rosï¿½t,[2] 1725ben vï¿½mmentes szabad kikï¿½tï¿½vï¿½ nyilvï¿½nï¿½totta. Kï¿½roly fï¿½ cï¿½lja Velence kereskedelmi hegemï¿½niï¿½jï¿½nak megtï¿½rï¿½se, ï¿½s a sajï¿½t tengeri kereskedelem fellendï¿½tï¿½se volt. A Habsburg Birodalom tengeri kereskedelmï¿½t ugyanis Velence tartotta szilï¿½rdan a kezï¿½ben. A birodalom tengeri exportja ï¿½s importja jï¿½rï¿½szt velencei hajï¿½kon ï¿½s Velencï¿½n keresztï¿½l zajlott.[3] Bï¿½r utï¿½dai folytattï¿½k Kï¿½roly politikï¿½jï¿½t, elsï¿½sorban Trieszt fejlesztï¿½sï¿½t, a helyzet lï¿½nyegï¿½ben vï¿½ltozatlan maradt, egï¿½szen a Velencei Kï¿½ztï¿½rsasï¿½g 1797es bukï¿½sï¿½ig. Kï¿½roly rendelkezï¿½sei mï¿½r a kezdetektï¿½l fogva elsï¿½sorban a legfontosabb osztrï¿½k kikï¿½tï¿½nek tekintett Triesztnek kedveztek, Fiume fejlesztï¿½se hï¿½ttï¿½rbe szorult.
Mï¿½ria Terï¿½zia a felvilï¿½gosult abszolutizmus tudatos, merkantilista gazdasï¿½gpolitikï¿½ja jegyï¿½ben folytatta az apja ï¿½ltal megkezdett tevï¿½kenysï¿½get. E politika tovï¿½bbra is elsï¿½sorban a birodalom elsï¿½ szï¿½mï¿½ kikï¿½tï¿½jï¿½nek tartott Trieszt szï¿½mï¿½ra kedvezett. Fiume szï¿½mï¿½ra a pozitï¿½v vï¿½ltozï¿½st a trï¿½nï¿½rï¿½kï¿½s, Jï¿½zsef fï¿½herceg kï¿½zbenjï¿½rï¿½sa hozta meg. 1775ben Jï¿½zsef Fiumï¿½be lï¿½togatott, ï¿½s az ott tapasztaltak alapjï¿½n arra a meggyï¿½zï¿½dï¿½sre jutott, hogy Trieszt mellett Fiumï¿½t is fejleszteni kell. Ennek megvalï¿½sï¿½tï¿½sï¿½ra azt a javaslatot tette, hogy Magyarorszï¿½g kivitelï¿½t biztosï¿½tsï¿½k Fiume szï¿½mï¿½ra, mivel ez mind a kikï¿½tï¿½, mind pedig Magyarorszï¿½g szï¿½mï¿½ra meghozza a fellendï¿½lï¿½st. Ennek hï¿½tterï¿½ben valï¿½jï¿½ban tudatos, merkantilista gazdasï¿½gpolitika ï¿½llt. A tï¿½rï¿½k uralom alatt elnï¿½ptelenedett dï¿½lvidï¿½ki terï¿½letek ugyanis erre az idï¿½re nyertï¿½k vissza vezetï¿½ szerepï¿½ket a magyar gabonatermelï¿½sben. A XVIII. szï¿½zad elejï¿½nkï¿½zepï¿½n tï¿½bb hullï¿½mban betelepï¿½tett  elsï¿½sorban nï¿½met  telepeseknek az 1760as ï¿½s 1770es ï¿½vekre sikerï¿½lt az elhagyott fï¿½ldeket teljesen mï¿½velï¿½sï¿½k alï¿½ fogni, ï¿½s jelentï¿½s mennyisï¿½gï¿½ felesleget termelni.[4] Az elsï¿½sorban kamarai ï¿½s merkantil arisztokratï¿½k tulajdonï¿½ban lï¿½vï¿½ birtokokon keletkezï¿½ felesleget birtokosaik exportï¿½lni szerettï¿½k volna. Miutï¿½n Ausztria ezt a mennyisï¿½get nem volt kï¿½pes felszï¿½vni, a kivitelnek mï¿½s piacot kellett keresni. A potenciï¿½lis piacot NyugatEurï¿½pa jelentette. A kor viszonyai kï¿½zï¿½tt a kivitelnek kï¿½t lehetsï¿½ges irï¿½nya adï¿½dott: az AlDuna ï¿½s a Feketetenger, illetve Fiume. Mindkï¿½t ï¿½tvonal elï¿½tt egyformï¿½n termï¿½szeti akadï¿½lyok tornyosultak. A kï¿½t megoldï¿½s kï¿½zï¿½l Fiumï¿½t az tette kï¿½vï¿½natosabbï¿½, hogy a legrï¿½videbb ï¿½tvonalat jelentette a Dï¿½lvidï¿½k ï¿½s a tenger kï¿½zï¿½tt, rï¿½adï¿½sul ez az ï¿½tvonal sajï¿½t terï¿½leten hï¿½zï¿½dott, nem ï¿½gy, mint a tï¿½rï¿½k kï¿½zben lï¿½vï¿½ AlDuna.
Az uralkodï¿½ elfogadta fia javaslatï¿½t, ï¿½s a Habsburgok csalï¿½di birtokaihoz tartozï¿½ Fiumï¿½t 1776ban Horvï¿½torszï¿½gon keresztï¿½l a magyar koronï¿½hoz csatolta. Mï¿½g ebben az ï¿½vben a kikï¿½tï¿½ megkapta ugyanazokat a jogokat ï¿½s kivï¿½ltsï¿½gokat is, melyek Triesztet illettï¿½k. Fiume kormï¿½nyzï¿½jï¿½vï¿½ Majlï¿½th Jï¿½zsefet neveztï¿½k ki, akit megbï¿½ztak azzal, hogy rendezze Fiume helyzetï¿½t. Majlï¿½th 1776ban lï¿½trehozta Szeverin megyï¿½t, amely horvï¿½t terï¿½leteket is magï¿½ban foglalt. Ezzel a megoldï¿½ssal azonban sem Horvï¿½torszï¿½g, sem Fiume nem volt megelï¿½gedve. Horvï¿½torszï¿½g terï¿½letï¿½nek csorbulï¿½sï¿½t, Fiume pedig  amely 1466 ï¿½ta szï¿½leskï¿½rï¿½ ï¿½nkormï¿½nyzatisï¿½ggal rendelkezett  a horvï¿½t joghatï¿½sï¿½got sï¿½relmezte. Szeverin megye ellen mind Zï¿½grï¿½b, mind Fiume erï¿½teljesen tiltakozott, amibï¿½l lï¿½tszott, hogy a Majlï¿½thfï¿½le megoldï¿½s ï¿½letkï¿½ptelen.
A tiltakozï¿½sok hatï¿½sï¿½ra Mï¿½ria Terï¿½zia 1779. ï¿½prilis 23ï¿½n Fiumï¿½t ï¿½s kerï¿½letï¿½t mint kï¿½zvetlen testet, separatum corpust, Magyarorszï¿½ghoz csatolta, a vï¿½ros autonï¿½m jogait ï¿½s belsï¿½ kï¿½zigazgatï¿½si rendszerï¿½t megtartva. A Mï¿½ria Terï¿½zia ï¿½ltal kiadott diploma elsï¿½ pontja kimondta, hogy Fiume ï¿½s kerï¿½lete Magyarorszï¿½g koronï¿½jï¿½hoz tartozï¿½ kï¿½lï¿½n terï¿½letnek tekintendï¿½, amely nem tartozik Horvï¿½torszï¿½ghoz. II. Jï¿½zsef 1786ban a buccari, hreljini ï¿½s vinodoli kerï¿½leteket Littorale Hungaricum (Magyar Tengerpart) nï¿½ven a fiumei kormï¿½nyzï¿½sï¿½gba olvasztotta, mikï¿½zben feloszlatta az 1776ban alapï¿½tott Szeverin megyï¿½t. 1787ben a vï¿½rosi tanï¿½cs hatï¿½skï¿½rï¿½t a politikai, gazdasï¿½gi ï¿½s tï¿½rvï¿½nyszolgï¿½ltatï¿½si ï¿½gyekben az egï¿½sz tengerpartra kiterjesztette.
Hiï¿½ba csatolta Mï¿½ria Terï¿½zia Fiumï¿½t Magyarorszï¿½ghoz, a magyar orszï¿½ggyï¿½lï¿½snek nem sikerï¿½lt a bekebelezï¿½st tï¿½rvï¿½nyben biztosï¿½tania. ï¿½t sikertelen felterjesztï¿½s utï¿½n csak a Fiume kï¿½rvï¿½nyï¿½vel tï¿½mogatott hatodik nyert szentesï¿½tï¿½st 1807ben. Mï¿½g ebben az esztendï¿½ben megalkottï¿½k az 1807:IV. tï¿½rvï¿½nycikket, mely kimondta, hogy Fiume kï¿½zvetlenï¿½l Magyarorszï¿½ghoz tartozik. A horvï¿½t rendek azonban Fiumï¿½t Horvï¿½torszï¿½g rï¿½szï¿½nek tekintettï¿½k, ï¿½s csak I. Ferencnek a horvï¿½t rendekhez intï¿½zett 1808as leirata utï¿½n, 1809ben ismertï¿½k el a vï¿½rost Magyarorszï¿½g kapcsolt rï¿½szekï¿½nt.
1808ban a bï¿½csi bï¿½ke Fiumï¿½t ï¿½s az egï¿½sz tengerpartot francia uralom alï¿½ juttatta. A vï¿½ros rï¿½sze lett az ï¿½gynevezett Illï¿½r tartomï¿½nynak, egï¿½szen visszafoglalï¿½sï¿½ig, 1813ig. A tengermellï¿½k azonban 1813 utï¿½n nem kerï¿½lt vissza Magyarorszï¿½ghoz, hanem megmaradt kï¿½lï¿½n tartomï¿½nynak Illï¿½r kirï¿½lysï¿½g nï¿½ven, egï¿½szen 1822ig. 1822ben, mï¿½g a magyar orszï¿½ggyï¿½lï¿½s ï¿½sszehï¿½vï¿½sa elï¿½tt egy kirï¿½lyi leirat visszacsatolta a vï¿½rost Magyarorszï¿½ghoz. 1823ban magyar kormï¿½nyzï¿½t neveztek ki a vï¿½ros ï¿½lï¿½re, ï¿½rmï¿½nyi Ferenc szemï¿½lyï¿½ben. ï¿½rmï¿½nyit 1837ben Kiss Pï¿½l kï¿½vette, aki 1848 mï¿½rciusï¿½ban is a vï¿½ros kormï¿½nyzï¿½ja volt.
Fiume ï¿½s Magyarorszï¿½g viszonyï¿½t alapvetï¿½en kï¿½t dolog hatï¿½rozta meg. Az egyik ezek kï¿½zï¿½l a vï¿½ros autonï¿½m hagyomï¿½nyaibï¿½l ï¿½s nemzetisï¿½gi viszonyaibï¿½l, a mï¿½sik pedig Magyarorszï¿½g ï¿½s Fiume gazdasï¿½gi egymï¿½srautaltsï¿½gï¿½bï¿½l kï¿½vetkezett. Fiume helyzetï¿½t tekintve mind nemzetisï¿½gi, mind pedig gazdasï¿½gi ï¿½rdekei a vï¿½ros Magyarorszï¿½ghoz valï¿½ tartozï¿½sï¿½t diktï¿½ltï¿½k ebben az idï¿½szakban.
Fiumï¿½nek 1819ben 6904, 1847ben pedig 11 865 (a kï¿½rnyezï¿½ telepï¿½lï¿½sekkel egyï¿½tt 13 149) lakosa volt.[5] E nï¿½pessï¿½g kï¿½t fï¿½ nemzetisï¿½gi alkotï¿½elemre bonthatï¿½: olaszra ï¿½s horvï¿½tra. Szï¿½zalï¿½kos megoszlï¿½sukra adatok csak 1881bï¿½l vannak, az olaszok ekkor relatï¿½v tï¿½bbsï¿½gben voltak 44 %os arï¿½nyukkal a horvï¿½tok 38 %val szemben. Ugyanezen felmï¿½rï¿½s szerint az olaszok a horvï¿½tok lakta susaki rï¿½szt nem szï¿½molva, a vï¿½ros tï¿½bbi terï¿½letï¿½n 80 %os tï¿½bbsï¿½gben voltak. Az 1881es 44 %hoz kï¿½pest 1848ban valï¿½szï¿½nï¿½leg magasabb lehetett az olaszok arï¿½nya, mivel az 1860as, 1870es ï¿½vekben jelentï¿½s mennyisï¿½gï¿½, elsï¿½sorban szlï¿½v bevï¿½ndorlï¿½ ï¿½rkezett a vï¿½rosba Horvï¿½torszï¿½gbï¿½l, Isztriï¿½bï¿½l ï¿½s Krajnï¿½bï¿½l.[6] A vï¿½ros gazdasï¿½gi ï¿½letï¿½ben, kereskedelmï¿½ben az olaszoknak volt dï¿½ntï¿½ szerepï¿½k, ï¿½k voltak a belvï¿½ros lakï¿½i, a vï¿½rost irï¿½nyï¿½tï¿½ patrï¿½cius csalï¿½dok nagy rï¿½sze kï¿½zï¿½lï¿½k kerï¿½lt ki. Fiume hivatalos nyelve az olasz ï¿½s a latin volt. A horvï¿½tok, valamint kisebb szï¿½mban a szlovï¿½nek, a kï¿½lvï¿½rosok lakï¿½i voltak, ï¿½s jï¿½rï¿½szt mezï¿½gazdasï¿½ggal foglalkoztak.[7]
A fiumei olaszok fï¿½ltek a horvï¿½tok beolvasztï¿½, a vï¿½ros kï¿½lï¿½nleges jogait megszï¿½ntetni szï¿½ndï¿½kozï¿½ tï¿½rekvï¿½seitï¿½l, ezï¿½rt szorgalmaztï¿½k a vï¿½rosnak kï¿½zvetlenï¿½l a magyar koronï¿½hoz csatolï¿½sï¿½t. Rï¿½juk is ï¿½rvï¿½nyesnek tekinthetï¿½k Vï¿½rady Jï¿½zsef magyar ï¿½llamtanï¿½csosnak, Fiume kormï¿½nybiztosï¿½nak a dalmï¿½ciai olaszokrï¿½l 1848ban tett megï¿½llapï¿½tï¿½sai: "Az olaszok ugyan olasz vï¿½reikhez szï¿½nak, azonban ezektï¿½l sem vï¿½delmi, sem kereskedelmi tekintetben sokat nem vï¿½rhatvï¿½n, ï¿½nï¿½llï¿½lag pedig fenn nem ï¿½llhatvï¿½n, csak a magyar ï¿½s az osztrï¿½k kormï¿½ny kï¿½zï¿½tt vï¿½laszthatnak. Dalmï¿½thon lakosai tehï¿½t valï¿½szï¿½nï¿½en azon orszï¿½ghoz ï¿½llanak, melytï¿½l legtï¿½bb anyagi ï¿½s szellemi hasznot vï¿½rhatnak."[8] Az olasz nemzeti mozgalom ekkor mï¿½g nem volt kï¿½pes reï¿½lis alternatï¿½vï¿½t nyï¿½jtani az Adria keleti partjï¿½n lakï¿½ olaszok szï¿½mï¿½ra,[9] ezï¿½rt azok termï¿½szetes mï¿½don arra fordultak, amerrï¿½l maguk szï¿½mï¿½ra a legnagyobb elï¿½nyï¿½ket remï¿½ltï¿½k ï¿½gy pï¿½ldï¿½ul a triesztiek Ausztria felï¿½, mivel ez garantï¿½lta a vï¿½ros gazdasï¿½gi felvirï¿½gzï¿½sï¿½t. A fiumei olaszok vï¿½laszthattak a kï¿½zeli, a vï¿½ros kï¿½lï¿½nleges jogait megszï¿½ntetni szï¿½ndï¿½kozï¿½ horvï¿½t hatalom, ï¿½s a tï¿½voli, a vï¿½ros helyzete miatt a vï¿½ros jogait tiszteletben tartï¿½, sï¿½t a vï¿½rost kï¿½lï¿½nleges kivï¿½ltsï¿½gokban rï¿½szesï¿½tï¿½ magyar hatalom kï¿½zï¿½tt. Termï¿½szetes, hogy mï¿½s lehetï¿½sï¿½g hï¿½jï¿½n az utï¿½bbit vï¿½lasztottï¿½k.
1798 utï¿½n, mikor a Habsburg birodalom Velence ï¿½s Dalmï¿½cia birtokï¿½ba jutott, Ausztria szï¿½mï¿½ra jelentï¿½sen leï¿½rtï¿½kelï¿½dï¿½tt Fiume szerepe. Ausztria ugyanekkor mestersï¿½gesen elsorvasztotta Velence kereskedelmï¿½t, mivel a vï¿½ros nem kapott szabad kikï¿½tï¿½i stï¿½tuszt. A velencei kereskedï¿½k ï¿½gy kï¿½nytelenek voltak hajï¿½parkjukat Triesztben regisztrï¿½lni, melynek kï¿½vetkeztï¿½ben Trieszt kereskedelmi flottï¿½ja hirtelen kï¿½zel a tï¿½zszeresï¿½re nï¿½vekedett.[10]
Fiumï¿½nek a magyar koronï¿½hoz csatolï¿½sa esï¿½lyt nyï¿½jtott a vï¿½ros gazdasï¿½gi felemelkedï¿½sï¿½re, mivel a vï¿½ros volt Magyarorszï¿½g egyetlen tengeri kikï¿½tï¿½je, ï¿½s ezen a kikï¿½tï¿½n keresztï¿½l bonyolï¿½dhatott volna Magyarorszï¿½g kï¿½lkereskedelmï¿½nek jelentï¿½s rï¿½sze. Azonban ez az esï¿½ly csak esï¿½ly maradt a 19. szï¿½zad elsï¿½ kï¿½tharmadï¿½ban, ï¿½s a fiumei kikï¿½tï¿½ben rejlï¿½ gazdasï¿½gi lehetï¿½sï¿½geket nem sikerï¿½lt kiaknï¿½zni ebben az idï¿½szakban. Mï¿½g a 18. szï¿½zadban tervek szï¿½lettek a fiumei kikï¿½tï¿½ megnagyobbï¿½tï¿½sï¿½ra, erre azonban nem kerï¿½lt sor, az 1822. utï¿½n szï¿½letett ï¿½jabb tervek viszont a megvï¿½ltozott birodalmi gazdasï¿½gpolitika miatt nem talï¿½ltak kormï¿½nyzati tï¿½mogatï¿½sra. A nagy hajï¿½k kikï¿½tï¿½sï¿½re nem alkalmas, szï¿½razfï¿½ldi kï¿½zlekedï¿½si hï¿½ttï¿½rrel alig rendelkezï¿½ Fiume nem mï¿½rkï¿½zhetett az Ausztria ï¿½ltal tï¿½mogatott ï¿½s a birodalom fï¿½ kikï¿½tï¿½jï¿½nek tekintett Trieszttel, annak ellenï¿½re hogy 1776ban megkapta ugyanazokat a jogokat, melyek Triesztet illettï¿½k. 1827ben Trieszt behozatali forgalma 24 milliï¿½ Ft, kiviteli forgalma 12 milliï¿½ Ft, mï¿½g Fiumï¿½ï¿½ 0,2 illetve 1,2 milliï¿½ Ft volt.[11]
Ebben az idï¿½szakban Fiume kereskedelme, kï¿½lï¿½nï¿½sen annak Magyarorszï¿½g felï¿½ irï¿½nyulï¿½ rï¿½sze igen csekï¿½ly volt, ezt az alacsony magyar kivitel ï¿½s a szinte nullï¿½val egyenlï¿½ behozatal okozta. Ebben az idï¿½ben Fiume tulajdonkï¿½ppen nem is volt igazi kereskedï¿½vï¿½ros, ugyanis jï¿½vedelmeinek fï¿½ forrï¿½sï¿½t az akkoriban nagy szï¿½mï¿½ hajï¿½ï¿½pï¿½tï¿½ telep ï¿½s a szabad hajï¿½zï¿½s, mï¿½s ï¿½ruinak fuvarozï¿½sa kï¿½pezte, valamint a vï¿½rosban kï¿½tï¿½l, szesz ï¿½s cukorgyï¿½r mï¿½kï¿½dï¿½tt. Ennek az volt az oka, hogy a kikï¿½tï¿½ kicsiny ki ï¿½s beviteli forgalma nem tudta a fiumei kereskedelmi flottï¿½t megfelelï¿½ mennyisï¿½gï¿½ ï¿½ruval ellï¿½tni.[12] Ugyanekkor Ausztria igyekezett az egï¿½sz birodalom kereskedelmï¿½t egyetlen kikï¿½tï¿½be, az ï¿½ltala favorizï¿½lt Triesztbe terelni, ezt segï¿½tette az 1836ban itt alakult Osztrï¿½k Lloyd gï¿½zhajï¿½zï¿½si tï¿½rsasï¿½g is. ï¿½gy ï¿½llhatott elï¿½ az a helyzet, hogy a Magyarorszï¿½gra tengeri ï¿½ton ï¿½rkezett ï¿½ruk  bï¿½r az orszï¿½gnak volt egy tengeri kikï¿½tï¿½je  Trieszten keresztï¿½l jutottak be az orszï¿½gba. Mindezen negatï¿½v hatï¿½sok ellenï¿½re Fiume forgalma 1825. ï¿½s 1848. kï¿½zï¿½tt a kï¿½tszeresï¿½re emelkedett. Fiume legnagyobb kiviteli tï¿½tele a dohï¿½ny volt, ezt kï¿½vette a fa, majd a gabona, a repce ï¿½s a kukorica. A fa kivï¿½telï¿½vel ezek a termï¿½nyek mind Dï¿½lMagyarorszï¿½grï¿½l ï¿½rkeztek.[13]
Fiume alacsony kereskedelmi forgalmï¿½t Trieszt erï¿½s versenye mellett legfï¿½kï¿½ppen a szï¿½razfï¿½ldi kï¿½zlekedï¿½s nehï¿½zsï¿½gei okoztï¿½k. Ebben az idï¿½ben Fiumï¿½t kï¿½t ï¿½t kï¿½tï¿½tte ï¿½ssze Kï¿½rolyvï¿½rossal, ahonnan a kereskedelmi ï¿½tvonal tovï¿½bb vezetett Magyarorszï¿½g felï¿½. Az elsï¿½ az 1771ben ï¿½tadott Karolina ï¿½t, amely meredeksï¿½ge miatt csak teherhordï¿½ ï¿½llatokkal volt jï¿½rhatï¿½, ï¿½s hiï¿½nyossï¿½gai mï¿½r befejeztekor nyilvï¿½nvalï¿½ak voltak. A napï¿½leoni hï¿½borï¿½k alatt megnï¿½vekedett gabonakivitel adta meg a kedvezï¿½ lï¿½kï¿½st a mï¿½sodik ï¿½t elkï¿½szï¿½tï¿½sï¿½hez, melyet 1809ben adtak ï¿½t, ï¿½s a Lujza ï¿½t nevet kapta. Ezen az ï¿½ton mï¿½r nagy szekerekkel is lehetett kï¿½zlekedni. Magyarorszï¿½gon 1828. utï¿½n kezdtek behatï¿½bban foglalkozni a tengeri kivitel ï¿½gyï¿½vel, ï¿½s 18281829ben kï¿½szï¿½lt egy felmï¿½rï¿½s ebben a tï¿½rgyban. Megï¿½llapï¿½tottï¿½k, hogy a szekerek a tengertï¿½l visszafelï¿½ ï¿½ltalï¿½ban ï¿½resen kï¿½zlekednek, ï¿½s ez megnï¿½veli a fuvarkï¿½ltsï¿½get, ami megdrï¿½gï¿½tja a magyar gabonï¿½t, ï¿½s rontja a pozï¿½ciï¿½jï¿½t a piacon az olcsï¿½ orosz gabonï¿½val szemben.[14]
A fent vï¿½zolt kï¿½rï¿½lmï¿½nyek miatt Fiume nem tudta betï¿½lteni kulcsfontossï¿½gï¿½ feladatï¿½t Magyarorszï¿½g kereskedelmï¿½ben. ï¿½reztï¿½k ezt a kortï¿½rsak is, ï¿½s tudtï¿½k, ez ellen csak a kï¿½zlekedï¿½si viszonyok javï¿½tï¿½sï¿½val tudnak tenni. Amikor Eurï¿½pï¿½ban megjelent a vasï¿½t, Magyarorszï¿½gon ï¿½s Fiumï¿½ben az elsï¿½k kï¿½zï¿½tt merï¿½lt fel egy fiumei vonal lï¿½tesï¿½tï¿½sï¿½nek gondolata. 1836ban Deï¿½k Ferenc az orszï¿½ggyï¿½lï¿½sen a fiumei vasï¿½t megï¿½pï¿½tï¿½sï¿½t  egyï¿½b vonalak mellett  lï¿½tkï¿½rdï¿½snek nevezte.[15] A fiumei vasï¿½t fï¿½ szorgalmazï¿½ja Magyarorszï¿½gon Kossuth Lajos lett. Kossuth 1845 novemberï¿½ben Fiumï¿½ban jï¿½rt, a fiumei vasï¿½ttï¿½rsasï¿½gok ï¿½gyï¿½ben. E lï¿½togatï¿½sa utï¿½n ï¿½rta meg 1846. januï¿½r 27ï¿½n megjelent hï¿½res cikkï¿½t "Tengerhez magyar! el a tengerhez" cï¿½mmel,[16] amelyben a Vukovï¿½rFiume vasï¿½tvonal ï¿½llami megï¿½pï¿½tï¿½sï¿½t szorgalmazta. A Vukovï¿½rFiume vonallal szemben Szï¿½chenyi Istvï¿½n 1848 elejï¿½re elkï¿½szï¿½lt kï¿½zlekedï¿½spolitikai koncepciï¿½ja a BudaFiume vonal megï¿½pï¿½tï¿½sï¿½t tervezte, ï¿½s a mï¿½rciusi forradalom elï¿½estï¿½jï¿½n az utolsï¿½ magyar rendi orszï¿½ggyï¿½lï¿½sen vita robbant ki a vasï¿½t tervezett ï¿½tvonala kï¿½rï¿½l.
Kï¿½nnyen megï¿½rthetï¿½ a Fiume, kï¿½lï¿½nï¿½sen az olasz nemzetisï¿½gï¿½ kereskedï¿½rï¿½teg, ï¿½s Magyarorszï¿½g egymï¿½sra utaltsï¿½ga. Magyarorszï¿½gnak a fiumei kikï¿½tï¿½ nyï¿½jtott lehetï¿½sï¿½get arra, hogy Ausztriï¿½tï¿½l fï¿½ggetlenï¿½tse kï¿½lkereskedelmï¿½t, mï¿½g Fiume szï¿½mï¿½ra a magyar koronï¿½hoz valï¿½ tartozï¿½s egyszerre jelentette a Trieszt bï¿½nï¿½tï¿½ hegemï¿½niï¿½ja alï¿½li kitï¿½rï¿½s, a gazdasï¿½gi felemelkedï¿½s lehetï¿½sï¿½gï¿½t, ï¿½s a horvï¿½tok beolvasztï¿½, a vï¿½ros kï¿½lï¿½nleges jogait megszï¿½ntetni kï¿½vï¿½nï¿½ tï¿½rekvï¿½sei ellen vï¿½delmet. Ezek voltak vï¿½zlatosan azok a tï¿½nyezï¿½k, melyek meghatï¿½roztï¿½k Magyarorszï¿½g ï¿½s Fiume kapcsolatï¿½t, valamint az egymï¿½shoz fï¿½zï¿½dï¿½ viszony alapvetï¿½ vonï¿½sait a forradalom idejï¿½n is.
Fiume az 1848as forradalom idejï¿½n
A mï¿½rciusi forradalommal ï¿½j szakasz kezdï¿½dï¿½tt Fiume tï¿½rtï¿½netï¿½ben is. A forradalom ï¿½s Batthyï¿½ny Lajos miniszterelnï¿½kkï¿½ valï¿½ kinevezï¿½sï¿½nek hï¿½re mï¿½rcius 17ï¿½n ï¿½rkezett a vï¿½rosba. A hï¿½rek hallatï¿½n nagy ï¿½nnepsï¿½get rendeztek, felvontï¿½k a magyar lobogï¿½t, lelkes beszï¿½deket tartottak, ï¿½s a vï¿½roshï¿½zï¿½nï¿½l kiraktï¿½k Kossuth ï¿½s Batthyï¿½ny kï¿½peit.[17] A fiumeiek ï¿½dvï¿½zï¿½ltï¿½k az alkotmï¿½nyos ï¿½talakulï¿½st, ï¿½s nï¿½hï¿½nyan mï¿½rcius 22ï¿½n kï¿½lï¿½n feliratban kï¿½szï¿½ntï¿½ttï¿½k Kossuth Lajost, akiben a vï¿½ros kereskedelmï¿½nek pï¿½rtfogï¿½jï¿½t lï¿½ttï¿½k, ï¿½s akinek kï¿½rtï¿½k a beleegyezï¿½sï¿½t, hogy rï¿½la egy hajï¿½t nevezhessenek el.[18] Fiume magyar kormï¿½nyzï¿½ja, Kiss Pï¿½l ekkor a pozsonyi orszï¿½ggyï¿½lï¿½sen tartï¿½zkodott, a jelentï¿½seket az ekkor mï¿½g a kormï¿½ny helyett mï¿½kï¿½dï¿½ Miniszteri Orszï¿½gos Ideiglenes Bizottsï¿½gnak (MOIB) Gerliczy Henrik alkormï¿½nyzï¿½ kï¿½ldte. Elsï¿½, mï¿½rcius 22ï¿½n kelt jelentï¿½sï¿½ben beszï¿½molt arrï¿½l, hogy a vï¿½rosban megkezdï¿½dï¿½tt a nemzetï¿½rsï¿½g szervezï¿½se, valamint arrï¿½l is, hogy a patrï¿½ciusokbï¿½l ï¿½llï¿½ Kapitï¿½nyi Tanï¿½cs tovï¿½bbra is csak zï¿½rt ajtï¿½k mï¿½gï¿½tt hajlandï¿½ tanï¿½cskozni. Gerliczy aggodalmï¿½t fejezte ki emiatt, mivel attï¿½l tartott, hogy ez erï¿½szakos cselekedetekhez vezethet. A MOIB mï¿½rcius 31i vï¿½laszï¿½ban arra utasï¿½totta az alkormï¿½nyzï¿½t, hogy tegye nyilvï¿½nossï¿½ a Kapitï¿½nyi Tanï¿½cs ï¿½lï¿½seit, valamint szorgalmazta a polgï¿½rok nagyobb arï¿½nyï¿½ rï¿½szvï¿½telï¿½t a testï¿½letben, de ebbe csak az ï¿½j tï¿½rvï¿½nyek megalkotï¿½sa utï¿½n kï¿½vï¿½nt beavatkozni.[19]
Gerliczy mï¿½rcius 28ï¿½n kedvezï¿½ fiumei ï¿½llapotokrï¿½l tett jelentï¿½st, a vï¿½rosban nyugalom honolt, ezt azzal magyarï¿½zta, hogy nem lï¿½teztek nyomasztï¿½ ï¿½rbï¿½ri viszonyok, mint az orszï¿½g mï¿½s rï¿½szein, a nemessï¿½g szï¿½marï¿½nya pedig viszonylag csekï¿½ly volt. Sokkal veszï¿½lyesebbnek ï¿½tï¿½lte meg a horvï¿½torszï¿½gi politikai mozgalmakat, kï¿½lï¿½nï¿½sen a Zï¿½grï¿½bban mï¿½rcius 25ï¿½n kiadott "Forderung der Nation" cï¿½mï¿½ rï¿½pirat[20] utï¿½n. A vï¿½rosban megszerveztï¿½k a nemzetï¿½rsï¿½get, de mindï¿½ssze 40 puska ï¿½llt a rendelkezï¿½sï¿½kre, ezï¿½rt 1000 puskï¿½t kï¿½rt a MOIBtï¿½l.[21] A horvï¿½t nemzeti mozgalom, melynek egyik cï¿½lja Fiume ï¿½s a magyar tengerpart Horvï¿½torszï¿½ghoz csatolï¿½sa volt, elsï¿½sorban az inkï¿½bb horvï¿½tok lakta Buccariban (Bakar) jelentkezett. Kiss Pï¿½l kormï¿½nyzï¿½ ï¿½prilis elejï¿½n ï¿½rtesï¿½lt errï¿½l a mozgalomrï¿½l, ezt jelentette Istvï¿½n nï¿½dornak, ugyanekkor utasï¿½totta Gerliczy fiumei alkormï¿½nyzï¿½t ï¿½s Kukuljeviï¿½ buccari kapitï¿½nysï¿½gi bï¿½rï¿½t, hogy minden igyekezetï¿½kkel prï¿½bï¿½ljï¿½k megfï¿½kezni a horvï¿½t nemzeti mozgalmakat.[22] Kiss Pï¿½l, aki mï¿½r 30 ï¿½v szolgï¿½lati idï¿½t tudott maga mï¿½gï¿½tt, ï¿½prilis 22ï¿½n bejelentette a nï¿½dornak lemondï¿½sï¿½t, amit az el is fogadott.[23] Helyï¿½t a fiumei kormï¿½nyzï¿½sï¿½g ï¿½lï¿½n Erdï¿½dy Jï¿½nos grï¿½f, varasdi ï¿½rï¿½kï¿½s fï¿½ispï¿½n foglalta el, akinek kinevezï¿½sï¿½t Szemere belï¿½gyminiszter ï¿½prilis 26ï¿½n terjesztette fel a nï¿½dorhoz.[24]
Az 18471848as orszï¿½ggyï¿½lï¿½s idï¿½kï¿½zben megszerkesztette Fiume ï¿½s Buccari szabad kikï¿½tï¿½k igazgatï¿½sï¿½ra vonatkozï¿½ tï¿½rvï¿½nyjavaslatï¿½t, mely az 1848. ï¿½prilis 11ï¿½n szentesï¿½tett tï¿½rvï¿½nyek kï¿½zï¿½tt a XXVII. cikkelyt foglalta el, ï¿½s amelynek ï¿½rtelmï¿½ben azok a szabad kirï¿½lyi vï¿½rosok jogait nyertï¿½k el. A tï¿½rvï¿½ny ï¿½rtelmï¿½ben a kï¿½zigazgatï¿½st ezentï¿½l a patrï¿½cius Kapitï¿½nyi Tanï¿½cs helyett szabadon vï¿½lasztott tanï¿½cs ï¿½s kï¿½pviselï¿½testï¿½letek vï¿½geztï¿½k, a kirï¿½lyi kormï¿½nyzï¿½t az ellenï¿½rzï¿½s joga illette meg, melyet nevï¿½ben Fiume ï¿½s Buccari kinevezett alkapitï¿½nyai gyakoroltak. Fiume az ï¿½j kormï¿½nyzï¿½ kinevezï¿½sï¿½vel pï¿½rhuzamosan kï¿½rte az 1848:XXVII. tc. alapjï¿½n az alkapitï¿½nyok kinevezï¿½sï¿½t. Szemere belï¿½gyminiszter Vukovics Sebï¿½t szerette volna Buccari alkapitï¿½nyï¿½vï¿½ kineveztetni, abban bï¿½zva, hogy kï¿½pes lesz a buccari horvï¿½t nemzeti mozgalmat megfï¿½kezni,[25] de Vukovicsot mï¿½jus 23ï¿½n kineveztï¿½k Csernovits Pï¿½ter dï¿½lvidï¿½ki kirï¿½lyi biztos mellï¿½  ugyanolyan jogosï¿½tvï¿½nyokkal  kirï¿½lyi biztossï¿½. Az alkapitï¿½nyok kinevezï¿½se vï¿½gï¿½l jï¿½nius 5ï¿½n tï¿½rtï¿½nt meg, Fiume alkapitï¿½nya Augusto Tosoni, Buccari alkapitï¿½nya pedig Bartal Smaiï¿½[26] lett. A jï¿½lius 5ï¿½n Pesten megnyï¿½lt nï¿½pkï¿½pviseleti orszï¿½ggyï¿½lï¿½sen Fiume kï¿½vete Giuseppe Susani lett. Fiume mï¿½g ï¿½prilis vï¿½gï¿½n kï¿½rte az olasz nyelvnek a hivatalos hasznï¿½latban valï¿½ meghagyï¿½sï¿½t,[27] mely kï¿½relemnek a tovï¿½bbi sorsa ismeretlen, de valï¿½szï¿½nï¿½leg meghallgatï¿½sra talï¿½lt, mert a kormï¿½nyzï¿½nak kï¿½ldï¿½tt rendeleteket ï¿½s leiratokat, valamint a tï¿½rvï¿½nyeket olasz fordï¿½tï¿½sban kï¿½ldtï¿½k el.[28]
1848 tavaszï¿½nnyarï¿½n a magyar tengerpart Magyarorszï¿½g ï¿½s a megerï¿½sï¿½dï¿½ horvï¿½t nemzeti mozgalom tï¿½rekvï¿½seinek egyik fï¿½ ï¿½tkï¿½zï¿½ terï¿½letï¿½vï¿½ vï¿½lt. Mindekï¿½zben magyar rï¿½szrï¿½l tï¿½rtï¿½nelmi jogon igï¿½nyt emeltek Dalmï¿½ciï¿½ra, melyet a horvï¿½tok is magukï¿½nak szerettek volna tudni, egy Ausztriï¿½hoz tartozï¿½ Horvï¿½tSzlavï¿½nDalmï¿½t kirï¿½lysï¿½g formï¿½jï¿½ban, melynek termï¿½szetesen rï¿½szï¿½t kï¿½pezi a magyar tengerpart is. A magyar kormï¿½ny jï¿½niusban propagandï¿½t kezdett Dalmï¿½ciï¿½ban, elsï¿½sorban Raguzï¿½ban a Magyarorszï¿½ghoz csatlakozï¿½s mellett. Dalmï¿½cia birtoklï¿½sï¿½ra azonban nem sok esï¿½lye volt Magyarorszï¿½gnak, mivel a szerï¿½ny propagandï¿½n kï¿½vï¿½l nem ï¿½llt semmifï¿½le eszkï¿½z a rendelkezï¿½sï¿½re, ï¿½s a terï¿½letet elszigetelte Horvï¿½torszï¿½g ï¿½s a Hatï¿½rï¿½rvidï¿½k.
A magyar tengerpart ï¿½s Dalmï¿½cia birtoklï¿½sï¿½ï¿½rt kibontakozott kettï¿½s kï¿½zdelem az osztrï¿½kok ï¿½ltal titokban pï¿½nzzel ï¿½s fegyverrel tï¿½mogatott Horvï¿½torszï¿½ggal meghaladta a fiatal magyar kormï¿½ny erejï¿½t, melyet amï¿½gy is mï¿½s, fontosabb feladatok kï¿½tï¿½ttek le. Hamarosan nem csak Dalmï¿½cia birtoklï¿½sa, de Fiume ï¿½s a magyar tengerpart megtartï¿½sa is kï¿½rdï¿½sessï¿½ vï¿½lt. A tengerparti terï¿½letek elvesztï¿½se felï¿½ hatï¿½ okok egyik legfontosabbika maga a fï¿½ldrajzi helyzet volt, mert az ellensï¿½ges hangulatï¿½ Horvï¿½torszï¿½g ï¿½s a Hatï¿½rï¿½rvidï¿½k teljesen elszigetelte Fiumï¿½t Magyarorszï¿½gtï¿½l. Paolini fiumei polgï¿½r Susaninak, a vï¿½ros kï¿½pviselï¿½jï¿½nek ï¿½rott jï¿½lius 30i levelï¿½ben valï¿½sï¿½gos "istencsapï¿½sï¿½nak" nevezi a Magyarorszï¿½g ï¿½s Fiume kï¿½zï¿½ beï¿½kelï¿½dï¿½ Horvï¿½torszï¿½got.[29] Tovï¿½bb sï¿½lyosbï¿½totta a helyzetet, hogy Fiume helyï¿½rsï¿½ge, a Leopold ezred hat szï¿½zadnyi katonï¿½ja horvï¿½t volt, ï¿½s parancsnokuk, Kleindienst ezredes, nem fogadott el semmilyen utasï¿½tï¿½st Erdï¿½dy kormï¿½nyzï¿½tï¿½l. 1848 tavaszï¿½n Fiumï¿½ben is megszerveztï¿½k a nemzetï¿½rsï¿½get (Guardia Nazionale), melynek a fï¿½kapitï¿½nya maga Erdï¿½dy lett, mï¿½g a zï¿½szlï¿½alj parancsnoka Pietro Scarpa, ï¿½rnagyi rangban.[30] A nemzetï¿½rsï¿½g lï¿½tszï¿½ma kï¿½rï¿½lbelï¿½l 250 fï¿½ volt, viszont ez az erï¿½ fegyverek hiï¿½nyï¿½ban nem sokat ï¿½rt.[31]
A horvï¿½t nemzeti mozgalom eltï¿½rï¿½ intenzitï¿½ssal jelentkezett a tengerpart kï¿½lï¿½nbï¿½zï¿½ terï¿½letein. Fiume mindvï¿½gig hï¿½sï¿½ges volt Magyarorszï¿½ghoz, az olasz nemzetisï¿½gï¿½ lakossï¿½g nem sok jï¿½t vï¿½rt a horvï¿½toktï¿½l. A vï¿½ros horvï¿½t nemzetisï¿½gï¿½ lakossï¿½ga szintï¿½n nem rokonszenvezett a horvï¿½t nemzeti mozgalommal, a vï¿½rosba bejï¿½vï¿½, zenï¿½vel ï¿½s tï¿½nccal nemzeti propagandï¿½t kifejteni szï¿½ndï¿½kozï¿½ horvï¿½t csoportok hï¿½vï¿½s fogadtatï¿½sban rï¿½szesï¿½ltek.[32] Nem ï¿½gy alakult a tengerpart mï¿½sik kikï¿½tï¿½jï¿½ben, Buccariban a helyzet. Itt mï¿½r kezdettï¿½l fogva igen erï¿½s volt a horvï¿½t mozgalom, ï¿½s jï¿½nius vï¿½gï¿½re a vï¿½rosi tanï¿½cs Jellaï¿½iï¿½ horvï¿½t bï¿½n mellï¿½ ï¿½llt, ï¿½s a maga rendelkezï¿½sï¿½re Zï¿½grï¿½bbï¿½l horvï¿½t hatï¿½rï¿½rï¿½ket kapott. Mivel Fiume tï¿½rparancsnoka megtagadta a kormï¿½nyzï¿½tï¿½l az engedelmessï¿½get, az nem tudta a magyar hatï¿½sï¿½gokat megvï¿½deni, ï¿½s a kincstï¿½rat fegyveresen biztosï¿½tani. A buccari vï¿½rosi tanï¿½cs Erdï¿½dy rendeletï¿½t felbontatlanul, "nem fogadtatik el" (non si accetta) felirattal kï¿½ldte vissza, ï¿½s levï¿½ltotta azokat a tisztviselï¿½ket, akik nem ï¿½rtï¿½k alï¿½ a bï¿½ni hï¿½sï¿½gnyilatkozatot.[33] Ezek utï¿½n Buccarival ï¿½s a vinodoli kerï¿½lettel minden ï¿½sszekï¿½ttetï¿½s megszakadt, ott mï¿½r a bï¿½n rendelkezett.
Fiume sorsï¿½t nagyban meghatï¿½rozta az a tï¿½ny, hogy helyï¿½rsï¿½ge horvï¿½t katonï¿½kbï¿½l ï¿½llt. Paolini mï¿½r emlï¿½tett levelï¿½ben a horvï¿½t katonasï¿½g magyar helyï¿½rsï¿½gre cserï¿½lï¿½sï¿½nek ï¿½getï¿½ szï¿½ksï¿½gï¿½rï¿½l ï¿½rt.[34] Mï¿½jus 8ï¿½n a magyar minisztertanï¿½cs kï¿½t tï¿½zï¿½rszï¿½zadot akart Fiumï¿½be kï¿½ldeni, ekkor mï¿½g az osztrï¿½k hadï¿½gyminisztï¿½rium kï¿½rï¿½sï¿½re, hogy megvï¿½djï¿½k a vï¿½rost a szï¿½rdnï¿½polyi egyesï¿½lt flotta esetleges tï¿½madï¿½sï¿½tï¿½l. Mï¿½r akkor lï¿½tszott, hogy a csapatok nem tudnak Zï¿½grï¿½bon keresztï¿½l Fiumï¿½be jutni, ezï¿½rt Deï¿½k javaslatï¿½ra ï¿½gy hatï¿½roztak, a csapatoknak Zï¿½grï¿½bot megkerï¿½lve kell a vï¿½rosba menni.[35] Ezek a csapatok sohasem ï¿½rkeztek meg Fiumï¿½be. A buccari esemï¿½nyek utï¿½n a magyar kormï¿½ny sï¿½rgï¿½s lï¿½pï¿½seket tett, hogy a horvï¿½t csapatokat magyarokkal vï¿½ltsa fel. Mï¿½szï¿½ros Lï¿½zï¿½r hadï¿½gyminiszter jï¿½lius 7ï¿½n kï¿½rte az osztrï¿½k hadï¿½gyminisztï¿½riumot, hogy rendeljï¿½k Fiumï¿½be a Triesztben ï¿½llomï¿½sozï¿½ Este Ferenc Ferdinï¿½nd gyalogezred nï¿½gy szï¿½zadï¿½t.[36] Ezek a csapatok sem ï¿½rkeztek meg Fiumï¿½be, mint ahogy a Mï¿½szï¿½ros ï¿½ltal jï¿½lius ï¿½s augusztus folyamï¿½n kï¿½rt ï¿½jabb csapatok sem, ugyanis vagy el sem tudtak indulni, vagy az osztrï¿½kok idï¿½kï¿½zben Itï¿½liï¿½ba vezï¿½nyeltï¿½k ï¿½ket.
A nemzetisï¿½gi konfliktusokkal terhes lï¿½gkï¿½rben kevï¿½s esï¿½lye maradt annak, hogy sikeresen megkezdï¿½dhetnek a vï¿½ros gazdasï¿½gï¿½nak ï¿½j alapokon valï¿½ felvirï¿½goztatï¿½sï¿½ra irï¿½nyulï¿½ munkï¿½latok. Tervbe vettï¿½k az 1847ben megkezdett kikï¿½tï¿½munkï¿½latok (hullï¿½mtï¿½rï¿½ ï¿½pï¿½tï¿½se) folytatï¿½sï¿½t, amire a harmincadpï¿½nztï¿½rban lï¿½vï¿½ pï¿½nzbï¿½l 42.000 Ft elkï¿½lï¿½nï¿½tï¿½sï¿½t terveztï¿½k.[37] A vasï¿½t ï¿½gyï¿½ben jelentï¿½s elï¿½relï¿½pï¿½snek szï¿½mï¿½tott, hogy az ï¿½nï¿½llï¿½ magyar minisztï¿½rium ï¿½ltal vï¿½grehajtandï¿½ 1848:XXX tc. kimondta a fï¿½ vasï¿½tvonalak ï¿½llamkï¿½ltsï¿½gen tï¿½rtï¿½nï¿½ megï¿½pï¿½tï¿½sï¿½t, kï¿½zï¿½lï¿½k elsï¿½kï¿½nt ï¿½s azonnal megï¿½pï¿½tendï¿½nek a PestFiume vonalat hatï¿½rozta meg. A tï¿½rtï¿½nelem esemï¿½nyei azonban jelentï¿½sen kï¿½sleltettï¿½k e vonal megï¿½pï¿½tï¿½sï¿½t, mely vï¿½gï¿½l csak 1873ban kï¿½szï¿½lt el vï¿½glegesen.
Mï¿½jus 5ï¿½n Istvï¿½n nï¿½dor levï¿½lben javaslattï¿½telre hï¿½vta fel Spiridion Gopï¿½eviï¿½ trieszti nagykereskedï¿½t ï¿½s hajï¿½tulajdonost a magyar tengeri kereskedelem fellendï¿½tï¿½se ï¿½rdekï¿½ben.[38] Gopï¿½eviï¿½ jï¿½lius 5i vï¿½laszï¿½ban nem lï¿½pett tï¿½l az ï¿½ltalï¿½nossï¿½gokon, ï¿½s az angol intï¿½zmï¿½nyek meghonosï¿½tï¿½sï¿½t javasolta: nemzeti bank alapï¿½tï¿½sï¿½t, a vasï¿½thï¿½lï¿½zat fejlesztï¿½sï¿½t, a kikï¿½tï¿½ kiï¿½pï¿½tï¿½sï¿½t, ï¿½ruk behozatalï¿½nak elï¿½segï¿½tï¿½sï¿½t, szï¿½vetkezetek alakï¿½tï¿½sï¿½t.[39] Az ï¿½j magyar kormï¿½ny, illetve a Pï¿½nzï¿½gyminisztï¿½rium elsï¿½, Fiumï¿½vel kapcsolatos tï¿½nykedï¿½se a trieszti osztrï¿½k lottï¿½ betiltï¿½sï¿½nak elrendelï¿½se volt. Fiume fï¿½ kï¿½vï¿½nsï¿½ga az adï¿½k csï¿½kkentï¿½se volt, fï¿½kï¿½nt az igen nï¿½pszerï¿½tlen szesz ï¿½s dohï¿½nyadï¿½ eltï¿½rlï¿½se,[40] erre a kï¿½rdï¿½sre viszont mï¿½r nem szï¿½letett megoldï¿½s.
1848 mï¿½rciusï¿½ban Ausztria a velencei forradalom kï¿½vetkeztï¿½ben elvesztette flottï¿½jï¿½nak zï¿½mï¿½t, ezï¿½rt a cs. kir. haditengerï¿½szet nem volt kï¿½pes tï¿½bbï¿½ ellï¿½tni a tengerpart vï¿½delmï¿½t. Ugyanekkor megjelent az Adriï¿½n az egyesï¿½lt, Velencï¿½vel szï¿½vetsï¿½ges szï¿½rdnï¿½polyi flotta. Fiume ï¿½s a magyar tengerpart hajï¿½sai fï¿½lve hajï¿½juk elkobzï¿½sï¿½tï¿½l, nem mertek tï¿½bbï¿½ osztrï¿½k lobogï¿½ alatt kifutni a tengerre, ezï¿½rt kï¿½rtï¿½k a magyar kormï¿½nyt, hogy magyar zï¿½szlï¿½ alatt hajï¿½zhassanak. A magyar minisztertanï¿½cs, eleget tï¿½ve ennek a kï¿½rï¿½snek, hatï¿½rozatban szï¿½lï¿½totta fel az osztrï¿½k kormï¿½nyt a magyar lobogï¿½nak a kï¿½lkï¿½pviseletek ï¿½tjï¿½n a kï¿½lfï¿½lldel valï¿½ megismertetï¿½sï¿½re, illetve a tengeren valï¿½ megvï¿½dï¿½sï¿½re.[41] Az elsï¿½ kï¿½rï¿½st az osztrï¿½k kormï¿½ny teljesï¿½tette, a mï¿½sodikat mï¿½g ha akarta volna is, akkor sem tudta volna teljesï¿½teni megfelelï¿½ flotta hiï¿½nyï¿½ban. Paolini levelï¿½bï¿½l tudjuk, hogy tï¿½bb fiumei hajï¿½s valï¿½ban magyar zï¿½szlï¿½ alatt hajï¿½zott, ï¿½s az elsï¿½, magyar zï¿½szlï¿½ alatt futï¿½ hajï¿½t nagy ovï¿½ciï¿½val fogadtï¿½k Franciaorszï¿½gban.[42] 1848 tavaszï¿½nnyarï¿½n megszï¿½letett az ï¿½nï¿½llï¿½ magyar, pontosabban a magyar zï¿½szlï¿½ alatt hajï¿½zï¿½ kereskedelmi tengerï¿½szet, azonban ez, minden jelentï¿½sï¿½gï¿½tï¿½l eltekintve, inkï¿½bb kï¿½nyszer szï¿½lte ï¿½s kï¿½rï¿½szï¿½letï¿½ jelensï¿½gnek bizonyult.
A velencei forradalom kï¿½vetkeztï¿½ben a cs. kir. haditengerï¿½szet nem volt mï¿½r kï¿½pes ellï¿½tni a kereskedelmi hajï¿½zï¿½s vï¿½delmï¿½t, sï¿½t, a fiumei kikï¿½tï¿½i ï¿½s pï¿½nzï¿½gyï¿½ri szolgï¿½latot sem. A magyar kormï¿½ny 1848. nyarï¿½n ï¿½nï¿½llï¿½ magyar haditengerï¿½szet szervezï¿½sï¿½be kezdett. A haditengerï¿½szet szervezï¿½sï¿½nek kiindulï¿½ pontja az a levï¿½l volt, melyben Gaspar Matkoviï¿½ fiumei hajï¿½svï¿½llakozï¿½ mï¿½jus 12ï¿½n Gopï¿½eviï¿½ megbï¿½zï¿½sï¿½bï¿½l felajï¿½nlotta megvï¿½telre annak nyolc hajï¿½jï¿½t a magyar kormï¿½nynak, haditengerï¿½szet lï¿½trehozï¿½sï¿½nak cï¿½ljï¿½bï¿½l.[43] Mï¿½szï¿½ros hadï¿½gyminiszter az ï¿½tletet jï¿½nak talï¿½lta, de a tï¿½rgyalï¿½sokkal megbï¿½zott Kï¿½zlekedï¿½si ï¿½s Kï¿½zmunkaï¿½gyi Minisztï¿½riumban elakadt az ï¿½gy. Vï¿½gï¿½l augusztus 3ï¿½n Kossuth pï¿½nzï¿½gyminiszter vette kezï¿½be a haditengerï¿½szet szervezï¿½sï¿½t, ï¿½s utasï¿½totta Erdï¿½dy kormï¿½nyzï¿½t, hogy hozzon lï¿½tre egy bizottsï¿½got egykï¿½t, hadihajï¿½nak alkalmas hajï¿½ kivï¿½lasztï¿½sï¿½ra.[44] A felszerelendï¿½ hadihajï¿½k cï¿½lja rï¿½szben a kikï¿½tï¿½rendï¿½szeti ï¿½s pï¿½nzï¿½gyï¿½ri szolgï¿½latok ellï¿½tï¿½sa, valamint a kereskedelmi hajï¿½zï¿½s vï¿½delme, rï¿½szben pedig a fiumei magyar kï¿½zigazgatï¿½s ï¿½s kincstï¿½r vï¿½delme lett volna egy horvï¿½t tï¿½madï¿½s esetï¿½n. A bizottsï¿½g augusztus 14ï¿½n megvï¿½telre kivï¿½lasztotta a Gopï¿½eviï¿½ tulajdonï¿½t kï¿½pezï¿½ IMPLACABILE brigget, de a hajï¿½ Fiumï¿½ben valï¿½ felszerelï¿½sï¿½re mï¿½r nem kerï¿½lt sor, mivel a horvï¿½tok augusztus 31ï¿½n elfoglatï¿½k a vï¿½rost. Az IMPLACABILEï¿½t ennek ellenï¿½re a magyar kormï¿½ny oktï¿½ber kï¿½zepï¿½n megvï¿½sï¿½rolta, ï¿½s parancsnokï¿½nak kineveztï¿½k Vincenzo Domini grï¿½fot, a fiumei tengerï¿½szeti iskola tanï¿½rï¿½t. A hajï¿½t 1849. januï¿½rban megprï¿½bï¿½ltï¿½k Londonban felfegyverezni, de a hatï¿½lyos angol tï¿½rvï¿½nyek ï¿½s Gopï¿½eviï¿½ tisztessï¿½gtelen eljï¿½rï¿½sa kï¿½vetkeztï¿½ben ez nem sikerï¿½lt.[45]
A buccari horvï¿½t hatalomï¿½tvï¿½tel ï¿½ta Fiume megtartï¿½sa is egyre kï¿½rdï¿½sesebbï¿½ vï¿½lt, annak ellenï¿½re, hogy Magyarorszï¿½g Horvï¿½torszï¿½ggal kapcsolatos politikï¿½ja gyï¿½keresen megvï¿½ltozott 1848 augusztusï¿½ra. Magyarorszï¿½g augusztus 27ï¿½n mï¿½r beleegyezett volna Horvï¿½torszï¿½g teljes fï¿½ggetlensï¿½gï¿½be is, a magyar tengerpart ï¿½s az oda vezetï¿½ ï¿½t biztosï¿½tï¿½sa fejï¿½ben,[46] a horvï¿½tok ekkor azonban mï¿½r egyï¿½ltalï¿½n nem voltak hajlandï¿½k tï¿½rgyalni. Miutï¿½n a vï¿½rosban ï¿½llomï¿½sozï¿½ horvï¿½t csapatokat nem sikerï¿½lt magyar csapatokkal felvï¿½ltani, a megszervezett nemzetï¿½rsï¿½gnek meg nem voltak fegyverei, mï¿½r csak idï¿½ kï¿½rdï¿½se volt a vï¿½ros elvesztï¿½se. Ez az idï¿½pont augusztus vï¿½gï¿½n jï¿½tt el. Augusztus 26ï¿½n a jï¿½liusban a bï¿½ni tisztsï¿½gï¿½bï¿½l elmozdï¿½tott Jellaï¿½iï¿½ bizalmas ï¿½rtesï¿½tï¿½st kapott Bï¿½csbï¿½l, hogy hamarosan visszahelyezik bï¿½ni mï¿½ltï¿½sï¿½gï¿½ba. Ugyanekkor megï¿½llapodtak a Magyarorszï¿½g elleni horvï¿½t tï¿½madï¿½srï¿½l is. Ennek bevezetï¿½je volt a Fiume elleni tï¿½madï¿½s. Augusztus sorï¿½n a fenyegetï¿½ horvï¿½t tï¿½madï¿½s ï¿½rnyï¿½kï¿½ban ï¿½lï¿½ fiumeiek kï¿½tsï¿½gbeesett levelekkel kï¿½rtï¿½k a kormï¿½nytï¿½l ï¿½s a nï¿½dortï¿½l Fiume megvï¿½dï¿½sï¿½t.[47] Augusztus 28ï¿½n Josip Bunjevac zï¿½grï¿½bi alispï¿½n ultimï¿½tumot intï¿½zett Erdï¿½dy kormï¿½nyzï¿½hoz, melyben a hatalom ï¿½s a vï¿½ros ï¿½tadï¿½sï¿½t kï¿½vetelte. A nemleges vï¿½lasz utï¿½n 30ï¿½n reggel hatkor 1300 horvï¿½t fegyveres vonult fel a Fiumara partjï¿½n. Erdï¿½dy kormï¿½nyzï¿½ a vï¿½rontï¿½s elkerï¿½lï¿½se vï¿½gett megtiltotta a fegyveres ellenï¿½llï¿½st, ï¿½s mï¿½snap, 31ï¿½n, reggel fï¿½l kilenckor a horvï¿½t csapatok az uralkodï¿½ ï¿½s a horvï¿½t bï¿½n nevï¿½ben egyetlen puskalï¿½vï¿½s nï¿½lkï¿½l bevonultak Fiumï¿½be, Erdï¿½dy kormï¿½nyzï¿½ pedig mï¿½g aznap feloszlatta a nemzetï¿½rsï¿½get.[48] A vï¿½rost a kormï¿½nyzï¿½nak ï¿½s a magyaroknak nï¿½hï¿½ny napon belï¿½l el kellett hagyni. Fiume elfoglalï¿½sï¿½nak fontossï¿½gï¿½t jelzi, hogy a vï¿½ros kormï¿½nyzï¿½ja maga Jellaï¿½iï¿½ lett.
Fiume elfoglalï¿½sa ellen a magyar kormï¿½ny ï¿½s Fiume vï¿½rosa is tiltakozott,[49] de a tï¿½rtï¿½nteken ez mï¿½r nem vï¿½ltoztatott. Szeptember 4ï¿½n Jellaï¿½iï¿½ot hivatalosan visszahelyeztï¿½k bï¿½ni mï¿½ltï¿½sï¿½gï¿½ba, aki szeptember 11ï¿½n tï¿½madï¿½st intï¿½zett Magyarorszï¿½g ellen. Augusztus 31ï¿½n a magyar tengerpart megmaradt rï¿½sze is elveszett, a magyar politikai vezetï¿½s viszont nem mondott le rï¿½la, visszaszerzï¿½sï¿½re tervek szï¿½lettek 1848 novemberï¿½ben, illetve 1849 tavaszï¿½n.[50] A Fiume felï¿½ vezetï¿½ ï¿½t megnyitï¿½sa ï¿½s a kikï¿½tï¿½ elfoglalï¿½sa ï¿½riï¿½si stratï¿½giai jelentï¿½sï¿½ggel bï¿½rt, mert ï¿½gy Magyarorszï¿½g a tenger felï¿½ kitï¿½rhetett volna az elszigeteltsï¿½gbï¿½l, ï¿½s jelentï¿½s fegyverszï¿½llï¿½tmï¿½nyokhoz juthatott volna. 1849. jï¿½nius 20ï¿½n Velence ï¿½s Magyarorszï¿½g szï¿½vetsï¿½gi szerzï¿½dï¿½st kï¿½tï¿½tt, amely elsï¿½sorban a velencei haditengerï¿½szet ï¿½s a magyar hadsereg egyï¿½ttmï¿½kï¿½dï¿½sï¿½t lett volna hivatva elï¿½kï¿½szï¿½teni a tï¿½rsï¿½gben, de ebbï¿½l, akï¿½rcsak az egyï¿½b tervekbï¿½l, mï¿½r nem valï¿½sult meg semmi. Fiume az 1868as horvï¿½tmagyar kiegyezï¿½s utï¿½n lett ismï¿½t Magyarorszï¿½g rï¿½sze 1918ig, vï¿½gleges elvesztï¿½sï¿½ig.
1 Fiume cï¿½merï¿½ben egy fekete kï¿½tfejï¿½ sas ï¿½l egy korsï¿½n, melybï¿½l folyik a vï¿½z, a vï¿½ros nevï¿½re  folyï¿½  utalva. Fiume kï¿½zï¿½pkori tï¿½rtï¿½netï¿½re l: Fest Aladï¿½r: Fiume ï¿½s Magyarorszï¿½g. Budapest, 1920.
2 A Habsburg Birodalom tengerparti terï¿½letei ekkor mï¿½g csak Triesztre, Fiumï¿½ra ï¿½s e vï¿½rosok kï¿½rnyï¿½kï¿½re terjedtek ki. Ausztria Velence ï¿½s Dalmï¿½cia birtokï¿½ba csak az 1797es campoformiï¿½i bï¿½ke utï¿½n jutott.
3 Braudel, Fernand: The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. New York, 1972. I. k. 127129. o.
4 A nï¿½met telepï¿½tï¿½seknek csak a mï¿½sodik hullï¿½ma volt sikeres. E telepï¿½tï¿½s 1748. ï¿½s 1763. kï¿½zï¿½tt zajlott, Grassalkovich Antal kamarai elnï¿½k ï¿½s Cothman Antal kamarai telepï¿½tï¿½si biztos szervezï¿½sï¿½ben, jï¿½val ï¿½tgondoltabban ï¿½s szervezettebben, mint a korï¿½bbi telepï¿½tï¿½sek. Az ekkor ï¿½rkezett nï¿½meteket elsï¿½sorban kamarai birtokokra telepï¿½tettï¿½k. A tï¿½mï¿½rï¿½l bï¿½vebben: Mayer Jï¿½nos: Halï¿½l, szenvedï¿½s, kenyï¿½r. Csï¿½talja nï¿½met betelepï¿½tï¿½se. 1993.
5 Kobler, Giovanni: Memorie per la storia della liburnica cittï¿½ di Fiume. Fiume, 1896. III. k. 36. o.
6 Fiume ï¿½s a magyarhorvï¿½t tengerpart. Szerk.: Borovszky Samu, Budapest, ï¿½. n. 2224. o.
7 Uo.
8 Vï¿½rady Szemere belï¿½gyminiszterhez 1848. mï¿½jus 22. In: Horvï¿½th Jenï¿½: A magyar kormï¿½ny adriapolitikï¿½ja. Budapest, 1927. 48. o.
9 Az olasz egysï¿½g megteremtï¿½sï¿½ig semmilyen reï¿½lis esï¿½lyï¿½k sem volt az Adria keleti partjï¿½n lakï¿½ olaszoknak, hogy az anyaorszï¿½gtï¿½l segï¿½tsï¿½get kapjanak nemzeti mozgalmukhoz. Az 1866os hï¿½borï¿½, melyben Olaszorszï¿½g a szï¿½razfï¿½ldï¿½n ï¿½s a tengeren is veresï¿½get szenvedett Ausztriï¿½tï¿½l, bï¿½r Velence megszerzï¿½sï¿½vel jï¿½rt, a Triesztre, Isztriï¿½ra, Dalmï¿½ciï¿½ra ï¿½s Dï¿½lTirolra vonatkozï¿½ irredenta tï¿½rekvï¿½seket fï¿½l ï¿½vszï¿½zadra jegelte. Az olasz irredenta mozgalom Fiumï¿½ben a 20. szï¿½zad elejï¿½n erï¿½sï¿½dï¿½tt meg, de ez is csak egy viszonylag szï¿½k ï¿½rtelmisï¿½gi rï¿½teget ï¿½rintett. Fiume esetï¿½ben bonyolï¿½tja a helyzetet, hogy az olasz nemzeti mozgalom mellett lï¿½tezett az olaszok kï¿½rï¿½ben egy mï¿½sik, jelentï¿½s irï¿½nyzat is, melynek hï¿½vei leginkï¿½bb "fiumano"nak, fiumeinek tekintettï¿½k magukat. ï¿½k Fiume szï¿½mï¿½ra a fï¿½ggetlen, vï¿½rosï¿½llami stï¿½tuszt tartottï¿½k a legkï¿½vï¿½natosabbnak. E mozgalom jelentï¿½sï¿½gï¿½t mutatja, hogy a vï¿½rosban ï¿½k nyertï¿½k meg 1921ben a vï¿½lasztï¿½sokat, de ezt a vezetï¿½sï¿½get kï¿½sï¿½bb fegyverrel lemondï¿½sra kï¿½nyszerï¿½ttettï¿½k. Szintï¿½n jellemzï¿½, hogy amikor 1945ben Tito partizï¿½njai elfoglaltï¿½k Fiumï¿½t (mely 19241945 kï¿½zï¿½tt Olaszorszï¿½ghoz tartozott), elï¿½szï¿½r az ï¿½nï¿½llï¿½ vï¿½rosï¿½llamisï¿½g hï¿½veit kutattï¿½k fel ï¿½s gyilkoltï¿½k meg, s csak ez utï¿½n fordultak a fasiszta hatalom kï¿½pviselï¿½i ellen. Bï¿½vebben l. Fried Ilona: Emlï¿½kek vï¿½rosa Fiume. Budapest, 2001. 118120. o., 189191. o.,
10 Babudieri, Fulvio: Industrie, commerci e navigazioni a Trieste e nella regione Giulia. Milano, 1982. 125. o.
11 Gergely i. m. 10. o.
12 Fiume ï¿½s a magyarhorvï¿½t tengerpart i. m. 192193. o.
13 Gergely i. m. 11. o.
14 Fiume ï¿½s a magyarhorvï¿½t tengerpart i. m. 298. o.
15 Gergely i. m. 18. o.
16 E cikkï¿½nek cï¿½me vï¿½lt azutï¿½n hibï¿½s alakban a "tengerre magyar!" szï¿½llï¿½igï¿½vï¿½.
17 Gerliczy alkormï¿½nyzï¿½ Batthyï¿½ny miniszterelnï¿½knek 1848. mï¿½rcius 22. Magyar Orszï¿½gos Levï¿½ltï¿½r (a tovï¿½bbiakban MOL) H 1, 3. k. 85.
18 Gaspar Matkoviï¿½ ï¿½s tï¿½rsai Kossuthnak 1848. mï¿½rcius 22. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 34. o.
19 Gerliczy Batthyï¿½nynak 1848. mï¿½rcius 22., valamint MOIB Gerliczynek 1848. mï¿½rcius 31. MOL H 1, 3. k. 85.
20 A rï¿½plapban ("A nemzet kï¿½vetelï¿½se") a polgï¿½ri ï¿½talakulï¿½s mellett kï¿½veteltï¿½k Dalmï¿½cia, Szlavï¿½nia ï¿½s a Magyar Tengermellï¿½k valamint a hatï¿½rï¿½rvidï¿½k Horvï¿½torszï¿½ghoz csatolï¿½sï¿½t, a csak a horvï¿½t szï¿½bornak felelï¿½s kormï¿½ny felï¿½llï¿½tï¿½sï¿½t ï¿½s a horvï¿½t nyelv nemzeti nyelvvï¿½ tï¿½telï¿½t.
21 Gerliczy Batthyï¿½nynak 1848. mï¿½rcius 22. MOL H 1, 3. k. 104.
22 Kiss Pï¿½l Istvï¿½n nï¿½dornak 1848. ï¿½prilis 6. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 36. o.
23 Kiss Pï¿½l Istvï¿½n nï¿½dornak 1848. ï¿½prilis 22. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 39. o.
24 Szemere Istvï¿½n nï¿½dornak 1848. ï¿½prilis 26. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 41. o.
25 Szemere Vukovics Sebï¿½nek 1848. ï¿½prilis 27. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 42. o.
26 Szemere Tosoninak ï¿½s Smaiï¿½nak 1848. jï¿½nius 5. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 56. o.
27 Istvï¿½n nï¿½dor Batthyï¿½nynak 1848. mï¿½jus 16. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 44. o.
28 Szemere Erdï¿½dynek 1848. jï¿½nius 5. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 57. o.
29 Paolini Susaninak 1848. jï¿½lius 30. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 74. o. Paolini a "castigio di Dio" kifejezï¿½st hasznï¿½lta.
30 Horvï¿½th Lajos: Fiume ï¿½s nemzeti gï¿½rdï¿½ja 1848ban In: Hadtï¿½rtï¿½nelmi Kï¿½zlemï¿½nyek 1998./1. 294. o.
31 MOL H 92, 10. cs. 3377.
32 Erdï¿½dy Szemerï¿½nek 1848. augusztus 20. In: Jakab Elek: A magyar Fiume. Budapest, 1881. 25. o.
33 Erdï¿½dy Kossuthnak 1848. jï¿½lius 4. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 6364. o.
34 Paolini Susaninak 1848. jï¿½lius 30. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 72. o.
35 Minisztertanï¿½csi hatï¿½rozat 1848. mï¿½jus 8. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 4344. o.
36 Mï¿½szï¿½ros Esterhï¿½zynak 1848. jï¿½lius 7. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 65. o.
37 Susani Kossuthnak 1848. augusztus 11. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 88. o.
38 Istvï¿½n nï¿½dor Gopï¿½eviï¿½nek 1848. mï¿½jus 5. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 43. o.
39 Gopï¿½eviï¿½ Istvï¿½n nï¿½dornak 1848. jï¿½lius 5. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 64. o.
40 Susani Kossuthnak 1848. augusztus 24. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 9596. o.
41 Minisztertanï¿½csi hatï¿½rozat 1848. ï¿½prilis 12. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 37. o.
42 Paolini Susaninak 1848. jï¿½lius 30. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 73. o.
43 Matkoviï¿½ a minisztï¿½riumnak 1848. mï¿½jus 12. MOL H 31, 2. d., iktatï¿½szï¿½m nï¿½lkï¿½l. A tï¿½mï¿½rï¿½l rï¿½szletesen: Krï¿½mli Mihï¿½ly: Az IMPLACABILE. Kï¿½sï¿½rlet az ï¿½nï¿½llï¿½ magyar haditengerï¿½szet felï¿½llï¿½tï¿½sï¿½ra In: Hadtï¿½rtï¿½nelmi Kï¿½zlemï¿½nyek 1997./1. 84113. o.
44 Kossuth Erdï¿½dynek 1848. augusztus 3. In: Kossuth Lajos ï¿½sszes Mï¿½vei XII. Budapest, 1957. 666669. o.
45 Krï¿½mli i. m. 103113. o.
46 Minisztertanï¿½csi hatï¿½rozat 1848. augusztus 27. In: Kossuth Lajos ï¿½sszes Mï¿½vei XII. 805. o.
47 Susani Kossutnak 1848. augusztus 11. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 8788. o.
48 MOL H 92 10. cs. 3377.
49 Kï¿½lï¿½gyminisztï¿½riumi elnï¿½ki hatï¿½rozat 1848. szeptember 3. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 109110. o. Fiume kï¿½ldï¿½tteinek felsï¿½gfelterjesztï¿½se 1848. szeptember 4. In: Horvï¿½th i. m. 112114. o.
50 Waldapfel Eszter: A fï¿½ggetlen magyar kï¿½lpolitika 18481849. Budapest, 1962. 239. o.
